Types of Retainers
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Table of Contents
- Types of Retainers
- What do Retainers Look Like?
- Retainer Basics
- How the Retainer Process Works
- Care for your Retainers
A retainer is a device that’s custom-made to keep teeth in place after orthodontic treatment. It “retains” the new corrected teeth placement and bite. Most retainers are made of metal and plastic.
There are three main types of retainers. Permanent retainers are bonded to the back of your teeth. Hawley retainers are the “traditional” type of retainer, with a wire that runs along the front of your teeth and connects to a plastic or ceramic base that sits on the roof of your mouth. A plastic retainer is clear and fits over your teeth.
Note: Essix retainers were the first popular clear plastic retainer. Today they are one of many types or brands of plastic retainers. Still, some people refer to all plastic retainers as Essix retainers.
Comparing the Different Types of Retainers
When considering which type of retainer to choose, there are a few factors to consider, such as these:
- The type of orthodontic treatment you completed: If you completed a clear aligner treatment, for example, your aligner provider might offer a retainer that’s very similar to the style you wore throughout treatment, so you’ll already be used to it. If you completed braces treatment with an orthodontist, they may recommend a specific type of retainer for your treatment plan.
- Durability: Some retainers are more durable than others. If you know that your lifestyle requires a more drop-proof retainer, you may want to choose one that’s not fragile.
- Maintenance: All removable retainers need to be cleaned daily to avoid bacteria buildup that could cause problems like bad breath and tooth decay. Permanent retainers stay in the mouth but could make it harder to clean your teeth and create hidden “pockets” for bacteria like plaque to accumulate in. You have to be diligent about your oral care.
- Visibility: Clear retainers and permanent retainers are less noticeable, while traditional Hawley retainers feature a wire across the teeth.
- Cost and availability: Before choosing a retainer, look into how much it will cost to replace and how long it will take to get another one. In the event that you do lose or damage your retainer, you don’t want to be stuck paying a high cost or waiting for a long time. Waiting could put your teeth at risk of shifting.
What do Retainers Look Like?
Permanent retainers are made of metal, but they are attached to the back of the teeth, so they are nearly invisible.
Clear plastic retainers are virtually invisible, as they are clear and fit over the teeth.
Hawley retainers are the classic image you may have in mind when you think of a retainer. A plastic plate is molded to fit your mouth, and that base is connected to a wire that goes over your teeth (on the front).
Retainer Basics: Understanding the Types of Retainers
There are three basic types of retainers that may be recommended after your orthodontic treatment:
Removable Retainers (also known as Hawley retainers or traditional retainers)
This type of device is made from acrylic or plastic with a metal wire that goes over the front of the teeth. This retainer holds teeth in a specific position, and it’s usually worn overnight. The consistent pressure keeps your teeth from shifting out of alignment.
A removable Hawley retainer can cost between $150 and $350. With removable retainers, you may not need to get more than one or two during your full course of treatment. Your dental insurance may cover some or all of the cost.
Pros of Removable Hawley Retainers
- Easy to clean
- Removable for convenience
Cons of Removable Hawley Retainers
- Highly visible
- Top plate may affect speech
Clear Plastic Retainers (sometimes referred to as Essix retainers)
These types of retainers look much like aligners. They are clear plastic that fully surrounds the teeth. You can also get retainers made from plastic or polyurethane after you have other orthodontic treatment like braces.
These retainers are easy to clean and remove, just like metal and acrylic removable retainers. They are typically less visible, but they are more expensive than a Hawley retainer.
Plastic or polyurethane retainers are not as sturdy as metal/acrylic retainers, so you will probably replace them once a year if your course of treatment lasts longer than 12 months.
You must clean plastic retainers more thoroughly than Hawley retainers. While a plastic retainer may cost about the same as a standard removable retainer — between $100 and $300 — some options can cost up to $1,200 for a set.
Plastic retainers are easier to damage, as the material may be thinner than traditional retainers. They are not adjustable on their own, so an orthodontist can’t tighten them. Instead, a new retainer will need to be made.
Pros of Clear Plastic Retainers
- Removable for convenience
Cons of Clear Plastic Retainers
- Harder to clean
- Not adjustable (if teeth shift, a new set will need to be made)
- Easier to lose
Permanent Retainers (also called lingual wire retainers)
Permanent retainers are generally made of metal. A thin wire is bonded to the back of the teeth and can only be removed by an orthodontist.
While permanent retainers cost more than a Hawley retainer or a clear plastic retainer — around $250 to $550 per arch, either top or bottom — your dental insurance may be more likely to cover some of the cost of this preventative treatment.
Permanent retainers are harder to clean since they remain in your mouth. You will need to follow specific instructions from your orthodontist on maintaining oral health while you have this retainer in place, and that includes going to all your appointments, which may include adjustments and tightening.
Pros of Permanent Retainers
- Low maintenance
- Hard to damage
- Not visible
Cons of Permanent Retainers
- Not removable
- Requires diligent oral hygiene
- May create pockets between device and teeth where bacteria and food particles can accumulate, resulting in decay or bad breath
How the Retainer Process Works
Because teeth shift, any orthodontic treatment will require the use of a retainer, especially immediately after treatment, when the mouth and jaw are still getting accustomed to a new bite and tooth placements.
Immediately after your orthodontic treatment, if you’ve chosen a removable retainer, you’ll likely have to wear your retainer on a full-time basis for up to 6 months or even a year. You’ll probably transition to part-time wear after that. To ensure your teeth stay in alignment, you may wear your retainer at night indefinitely.
Permanent retainers are often worn for years. After they’re removed, part-time use of a removable retainer will likely be recommended.
No matter what type of retainer you get, it is important to do the following:
- Clean it by following the cleaning instructions provided.
- Keep it safe if it is removable, which means keeping it in its case in a safe location.
- Stick to scheduled orthodontic checkups if you have completed a course of braces. Follow the prescribed guidelines for wearing your retainer if you have completed an aligner course of treatment.
- Get in touch with your treatment team immediately if something does not feel right.
- Let your treatment team know if your retainer is damaged or isn’t fitting properly, so you can get a new one.
The type of retainer that is right for you will depend on the positioning of your teeth, your lifestyle, and the course of teeth straightening you completed. Talk to your orthodontist or treatment team about the best next step for you.
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You Have to Wear Your Retainer! (December 2015). Medium.
Retainer After Braces: Types and Maintenance. (January 2023). Colgate.
What to Know Before You Get a Retainer. (May 2018). Healthline.
A Survey of Protocols and Trends in Orthodontic Retention. (October 2017). Progress in Orthodontics.
Evaluation of Retention Protocols Among Members of the American Association of Orthodontists in the United States. (December 2016). American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics.
How to Retain a Brand New Smile. (September 2017). Orthodontics Australia.